Safety and efficacy of atrial septal defect closure on normothermic on-pump beating heart

The advancement of percutaneous intervention technique has been a driving factor for the development of new surgical techniques that are less invasive, less traumatic, and safer and covers a broader spectrum of cases, which were previously thought as inoperable. Though the use of cardiopulmonary bypass, hypothermia and hyperkalemic cardioplegic arrest gained wide acceptance yet the deleterious effect of extracorporeal circulation and unavoidable ischemic-reperfusion injury of aortic cross clamping and cardioplegic arrest resulting in myocardial edema and cardiac dysfunction could not be avoided.


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