A Prospective case control study was conducted in a tertiary hospital in Northern India to determine the risk factors associated with prete~m labour. Ninety four consecutive patients with preterm spontaneous labour were selected as cases and 188 patients with term spontaneous labour as control. The incidence of preterm labour was found to be 23.3%. The cases were older, shorter and lighter than controls. They had lower body mass index (BMI) and mid arm circumference (MAC). They belonged to significantly lower income group and their educational status was lower.