Factors responsible for major complications following thyroid surgery in 598 patients were studied. Patients with non toxic multinodular goiter involving both lobes of thyroid constituted the maximum bulk subjected to thyroidectomy. The most frequent procedure was bilateral subtotal thyroidectomy. Reactionary hemorrhage occurred in 6 patients, all following bilateral procedures and among them 5 patients developed tension hematoma with respiratory obstruction despite the presence of a drain. Temporary vocal cord palsy was observed in 7 patients whereas one patient subjected to total thyroidectomy with neck dissection for papillary carcinoma of thyroid developed permanent right vocal cord palsy.