Premature infants especially those with birth weight <1500 g suffer from Anaemia of prematurity (AOP) and associated problems. Erythropoietin therapy is a safe effective way to prevent and to treat anaemia of prematurity. To evaluate the effect of short term administration of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) with iron and folic acid in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates in the prevention of anaemia of prematurity. A randomized controlled trial was carried out at Dhaka Shishu Hospital. Sixty preterm very low birth weight (PTVLBW) babies were enrolled in this study. Thirty were assigned to rHuEPO group and 30 as control. Baseline haematologic values were estimated before administration of rHuEPO. From day 7 of life rHuEPO-200 IU/kg/dose subcutaneously every alternate day for 2 weeks was administered to rHuEPO group. All infants in both groups have received oral iron, folic acid from day 14.